Giza is the third largest city in Egypt. It is located on the west bank of the Nile, some 20 km (12.43 mi) southwest of central Cairo. Along with Shubra El-Kheima, Cairo and Helwan, the four cities form the Province of Greater Cairo metropolis. The city of Giza is the capital of the Giza Governorate, and is located near the northeast border of this governorate in coordinates. It is located right on the banks of the River Nile. The city’s population was 2,681,863 in the 2006 national census, while the governorate had 6,272,571 at the same census. Its large population made it the world’s second largest suburb in 2006, tied with Incheon, South Korea and Quezon City, Philippines, second only to Yokohama, Japan.
Giza is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau: the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramid of Giza, and a number of other large pyramids and temples. The plateau and its monuments have been recorded in the Giza Plateau Mapping Project run by Ancient Egypt Research Associates, directed by Dr. Mark Lehner. AERA’s 2009 field season was recorded in a blog.
It is in the center of the country, situated on the west bank of the Nile River opposite Cairo. Its capital is the city of Giza. It includes a stretch of the left bank of the Nile Valley around Giza, and acquired a large stretch of desert, including Bahariya Oasis when the 6th of October Governorate was merged into it on 14 April 2011. The Giza Governorate is also home to the Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza.
History of Giza:
Mn Nefer” (Memphis, in Greek) – which means “the beautiful wall” in the ancient Egyptian language -, the capital city of the first unified Egyptian state since the days of Pharaoh King Narmer, lies nearly 20 km (12.43 mi) south of Giza. Giza’s most famous archaeological site, the Giza Plateau, holds some of the most astonishing monuments in Egyptian history. Once thriving with the Nile that flowed right into the Giza Plateau, the pyramids of Giza were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis, which was near modern day Cairo.
The Giza Plateau is also home to many other ancient Egyptian monuments, including the tomb of Pharaoh Djet of the First Dynasty, as well as that of Pharaoh Ninetjer of the Second Dynasty.
|List of the Most Famous Pyramids at Giza & Around:
Over a course of almost 1,500 years, 118 pyramids were constructed by 20,000 to 30,000 Egyptian workers, in the service of the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. This list presents the vital statistics of the pyramids listed in chronological order, when available.
|Pharaoh||Ancient Name||Dynasty||Site||Base length x Height (m)||Volume (cu.m)||Inclination||Notes||Image|
|Djoser||Ancient name unknown Step Pyramid||3rd (c. 2686 – 2613 BC)||Saqqara||121w.x109d.x60h.||330,400||Pyramid complex includes enclosure wall more than a mile long 10.5 meters high. The complex covers 37 acres (150,000 m2) and there are 3.5 miles (5.6 km) of underground tunnels.|
|Sekhemkhet||Ancient name unknown “Buried Pyramid”||3rd||Saqqara||120sq.x7h.||33,600 (unfinished)||Rediscovered in 1951 by Zakaria Goneim. The sarcophagus held inside, though sealed and intact, was empty.|
|Sanakht aka Nebka(?)||3rd||Zawyet el’Aryan||200sq.x?h.||(unfinished)||Rediscovered in 1951 by Zakaria Goneim. The sarcophagus held inside, though sealed and intact, was empty.|
|Sanakht aka Nebka (?)||3rd||Zawyet el’Aryan||200sq.x?h.||(unfinished)|
|Khaba is thought to be the owner of this pyramid but this is disputed.||ancient name is unknown “Layer Pyramid”||3rd||Zawyet el’Aryan||84sq.x20h.||47,040 (unfinished)|
|Sneferu||Pyramid of Meidum||4th (c. 2613 – 2498 BC)||Meidum||144sq.x92h.||638,733||51° 50′ 35″||Pyramid complex includes a satellite pyramid|
|Sneferu||Bent Pyramid||4th||Dahshur||188sq.x105h.||1,237,040||54° 50′ 35″ /43° 22′||Pyramid complex includes a satellite pyramid|
|Sneferu||Red Pyramid||4th||Dahshur||220sq.x105h.||1,694,000||43° 22′||First true pyramid|
|Khufu||The Great Pyramid of Giza (Khufu’s Horizon)||4th||Giza||230.3sq.x146.6h.||2,583,283||51° 50′ 40″||Pyramid complex includes a satellite pyramid and 3 queen’s pyramids.|
|Djedefre||Pyramid of Djedefre||4th||Abu Rawash||106.2sq.x~68h.||131,043||~52°||Pyramid complex included a satellite pyramid.|
|Khafra||Khafre’s Pyramid||4th||Giza||215.25sq.x143.5h.||2,211,096||53°10′||Pyramid complex includes a satellite pyramid.|
|Menkaure||Menkaure’s Pyramid||4th||Giza||103.4sq.x65.5h.||235,183||51°20′25||Pyramid complex includes 3 queens pyramids.|
|Shepseskaf||Ancient name unknown Mastabet el-Fara’un||4th||South Saqqara||99.6w.x74.4d.x18h.||148,271||70°||Not a pyramid, but a giant mastaba|
|Khentkaus I||4th||Giza||45.5w.x45.8d.x17.5h.||6,372(upper)||74°||Stepped Tomb|
|Userkaf||The pure sites of Userkaf||5th(c. 2498 – 2345 BC)||Saqqara||73.3sq.x49h.||87,906||53°7’48”||Pyramid complex includes a satellite pyramid.|
|Sahure||The Rising of the Ba Spirit of Sahure||5th||Abusir||78.75sq.x47h.||96,542||50°11’40”||Pyramid complex includes a satellite pyramid.|
|Neferirkare||The Ba of Neferirkare||5th||Abusir||105sq.x54h.||257,250||54°30′||Originally built a stepped pyramid|